Goldenback fern (pityrogramma triangularis)

The goldenback fern (pityrogramma triangularis, or Pentagramma triangularis) is a smaller evergreen fern located in the southern end of the Pacific Northwest. It is three times pinnate and can get to 35 centimeters tall, and its pinnae are completely attached to the axis. Its stems are black and it gets its name from the golden-white powder underneath the leaves, and share the space with the sori, which follow the veins on the underside of the leaf. They prefer partly shaded, dry, rocky rough biospheres, in lower to middle elevations. Like the shield fern, the pair of leaflets closest to the base contains asymmetrical pinnae.



  • Smaller, evergreen fern, three times pinnate, can reach 35 cm
  • Stems are black, underside of leaf is golden
  • Prefer partly shaded, rocky and dry areas
  • Asymmetrical pinnae at the base of frond
  • Pinnae attach completely to the axis

Goldenback fern