Cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum) is a large, perennial flower that enjoys areas like banks of streams, moist slopes, coastal marshes and beaches, and other wet areas. It has a hairy stem and has either large taproots or a cluster of roots. It can grow to three meters tall, but is usually content at one. The stem is hollow and employs many uses. The leaves are very large, reaching up to 40 centimeters long, and are divided into three segments that are palmately lobed. The flowers are white and numerous, growing very wide at the top of the plant, and stay there throughout winter until the stem is toppled down.
- Leaves very large (10-40 cm), divided into three segments
- Can get to three meters high
- Perennial flower keeps its structure throughout winter
- Stems are hairy and hollow, can be used as straws
- Enjoys many different kinds of moist climates
Baldhip rose (Rosa gymnocarpa), also known as the dwarf rose, is a species of rose native to the Pacific Northwest. It likes many different types of habitats, but prefers damp forests. It can reach one to two meters high, and has armed, spindly branches. Its leaves are deciduous and alternately arranged, and compound with an odd number of leaflets, which have finely toothed margins. The flowers are rose to pale pink, small with five pedals and numerous stamens, and emerge in singles. It also bears scarlet-orange fruits shaped like pears, six to ten millimeters across. The sepals fall away earlier from the hip, earning the ‘baldhip’ name.
Western columbine (red columbine, aquilegia Formosa) is a perennial flower found in the butter cup family. It is tall and simple, and can reach up to a meter in height. Leaves are divided twice and end in threes, and have hairy to hairless blades. The flowers are small and unique, with five red spurs with glandular tips, with five or six pedals and stamen surrounded by five tubes arranged in a circle, similar to a revolver.
- Perennial flower in buttercup family, reaching up to one meter tall with long taproot
- Leaves are grouped into threes, twice-pinnate, and are basal
- Flowers in groups of 2-5, with five yellow and red spurs
- Flowers have five tubes surrounding the stamen, similar to a revolver
Pacific waterleaf is a perennial, herbaceous plant native to western North America. It is a groundcover plant that spreads wildly, and tends to compete space with English Ivy. It can grow to two feet tall, and its rhizomatous roots help it spread in a greater area. The leaves are alternately arranged and usually have five segments, with coarsely-toothed margins and hairs. The flowers it produces are small, lavender and white-green, bell shaped and five to seven millimeters long. The stamens and pistil protrude much farther than the flowers, distinguishing them from other flowers. The waterleaf thrives in lower to middle elevations, in forests and moist sites.
- Leaves in segments of five and coarsely-toothed, alternately arranged
- Grow very fast, compete with English Ivy
- Can grow to two feet tall
- Flowers are small, lavender, white-green
- Stamen and pistils extend far beyond the flowers
The piggy-back plant (Tolmiea menziesii, or youth-on-age) is a small perennial with flowering stems that can reach 40 to 80 centimeters tall. Primary leaves are hariy and basal, with hairy stalks. They are heart-shaped with palmate veination, and can have five to seven lobes with coarsely toothed margins. They can get to 10 centimeters long and sometimes have buds at the base of the blade. The flowers it produces are purple-brown, six to 10 millimeters long, with four ribbon-like petals and three stamen.
Oxalis (Oxalis oregana) is a perennial flower native to moist redwood and Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest. Its leaves are very noticeable due to their similarity to clover leaves: groups of three (sometimes four), heart-shaped leaves, with two lobes at the end and one connecting point. They also have a white mark going down the center of the leaf to the middle of the two lobes. The flowers have five light pink petals, with five groups of stamen coming form the center. The petals are parallel veined and have smooth edges.
- Leaves resemble clovers: groups of three, heart-shaped leaves, two lobes at one end meeting at a point at the stem
- White streak down center of leaf to middle of lobes
- Flower is light pink with five pedals
- Leaves prefer shade and flower will adjust itself throughout the day
The Oregon iris (Iris tenax) is a perennial flower hailing from the southern Pacific Northwest, reaching as high as southern British Columbia. It is a very prominent plant and can reach 40 centimeters tall, and has long, basal leaves that resemble grass. Its flowers are very distinguishable and are shaped like irises. The flowers are often lavender, but can range from blue to purple, and are paired in three pedals and septals, growing to six centimeters long. Its veins are black colored, going into a white-and-yellow center of the petal.
- Tall, reaching up to 40 cm
- Leaves shaped like grass, basal, long and narrow
- Flowers are prominent, with pedals and septals in groups of threes, up to six cm long
- Purple-blue in color but usually lavender, with prominent petals